References

Footnotes:

 

1 Erlmann, Veit: Nightsong. Performance, Power, and Practice in South Africa. Chicago/ London 1996, p. 46.

 

2 Baller, Susann: Urbanisierung und Migration in Afrika. In: Englert, Birgit et al. (eds.): Afrika im 20. Jahrhundert. Geschichte und Gesellschaft. Wien 2011, p. 199.

 

3 Erlmann, Veit: Isicathamiya – Die Chormusik der Zulu-Wanderarbeiter in Südafrika, 1890-1950. In: Erlmann, Veit (ed.): Populäre Musik in Afrika. Folge 53. Berlin 1991, p. 279.

 

4 Erlmann, Veit: Nightsong, pp. 51-52.

 

5 Erlmann, Veit: Isicathamiya, p. 277.

 

6 Erlmann, Veit: Nightsong, p. 57.

 

7 ibd., p. 61.

 

8 Erlmann, Veit: Isicathamiya, pp. 279-282.

 

9 Erlmann, Veit: Nightsong, pp. 77-95.

 

10 Muller, Carol A.: Focus. South African Music. New York/ London 2008, pp. 99-112.

 

11 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 110-112.

 

12 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 112-114.

 

13 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 112-113.

 

14 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 113sq.; pp. 117-118.

 

15 Cf. Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights. Jazz, ‘Race’ and Society in Early Apartheid South Africa. Scottsville 2:2012, p. 7.

 

16 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 129-130.

 

17 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 123-126.

 

18 Cf. for an example of such a gang Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, p. 131.

 

19 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, p. 117.

 

20 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, p. 137.

 

21 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight, p. 145.

 

22 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 138-140; pp. 144-146.

 

23 Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights, p. 32.

 

24 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 140-141.

 

25 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, p. 137; p. 140.

 

26 Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 140-145.

 

27 Cf. Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights, pp. 25 and Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 116-117.

 

28 Cf. Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights, p. 26.

 

29 Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights, pp. 16-18.

 

30 Cf. Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights, pp. 20-21.

 

31 Cf. Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, pp. 144-145.

 

32 Cf. Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights, pp. 21-24.

 

33 Cf. Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights, p. 20.

 

34 Cf. Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights, p. 17-18.

 

35 Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight!, p. 153.

 

36 Cf. Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights, pp. 4-5; p. 24.

 

37 Cf. Muller, Carol A.: Musical Remembrance, Exile and the Remaking of South African Jazz (1960–1979). In: Bithell, Caroline; Hill, Juniper (ed.): The Oxford Handbook of Musical Revival. New York 2014, pp. 644-665.

 

38 Cf. Gilbert, Shirli: Singing against Apartheid. ANC Cultural Groups and the International Anti-Apartheid Struggle. In: Olwage, Grant (ed.): Composing Apartheid. Music for and against Apartheid. Johannesburg 2008, pp. 155-184.

 

39 Meintjes, Louise: Sound of Africa. Making Music Zulu in a South African Studio. Durham 2003, p. 34.

 

40 Mahlathini and the Mahotella Queens. In: Wikipedia, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahlathini_and_the_Mahotella_Queens> [15.11.2017].

 

41 Male, Howard: The South African Sound of Mbaqanga. Joy out of Suffering: the Music of 1970s Soweto. In: The Arts Desk, 2010, <http://www.theartsdesk.com/new-music/south-african-sound-mbaqanga> [15.11.2017].

 

42 Meintjes, Louise: Sound of Africa, p. 35.

 

43 Ibid., p. 36.

 

44 Ibid., p. 35.

 

45 Male, Howard: The South African Sound of Mbaqanga.

 

46 Ibid.

 

47 Coplan, David B.: Sounds of the “Third Way”. Identity and the African Renaissance in Contemporary South African Popular Traditional Music. In: Black Music Research Journal. Vol. 21, No. 1, 2001, p. 110.

 

48 Ibid.

 

49 Ibid., p. 109.

 

50 Coplan, David B., Jules-Rosette, Bennetta: ‘Nkosi sikelel‘ iAfrika’. Stories of an African Anthem. In: Olwage, Grant (ed.): Composing Apartheid. Music for and against Apartheid. Johannesburg 2008, pp. 186–187.

 

51 Gilbert, Shirli: Singing against Apartheid, p. 161.

 

52 Schumann, Anne: The Beat that Beat Apartheid: The Role of Music in the Resistance against Apartheid in South Africa. In: Stichproben. Wiener Zeitschrift für kritische Afrikastudien. Vol. 8, No. 14, 2008, p. 23.

 

53 Ibid., pp. 25–26.

 

54 Ibid., p. 27.

 

55 Ibid., p. 20.

 

56 Gilbert, Shirli: Singing against Apartheid, p. 177.

 

57 Brede, Mara: „Apartheid tötet – boykottiert Südafrika!“ Plakate der westdeutschen Anti-Apartheid-Bewegung. In: Zeithistorische Forschung. Studies in Contemporary History. Vol. 13, No. 2, 2016, pp. 448sq.

Siegfried, Detlef: Aporien des Kulturboykotts. Anti-Apartheid-Bewegung, ANC und der Konflikt um Paul Simons Album Graceland (1985-1988). In: Zeithistorische Forschungen. Studies in Contemporary History. Vol. 13, No. 2, 2016, pp. 254sq.

 

58 Bacia, Jürgen; Leidig, Dorothée: „Kauft keine Früchte aus Südafrika!“ Geschichte der Anti-Apartheid-Bewegung. Frankfurt am Main 2008, pp. 9sq.

 

59 Von Moos, Tscherina; Leuthold, Theo: Together not apart. Dokumentation einer Südafrika-Boykott-Aktion in der Schweiz. Zürich 1987, pp. 8sq.

 

60 Siegfried, Detlef: Aporien des Kulturboykotts, pp. 254sq.

 

61 Kahrs, Andreas: Musik gegen Apartheid. ‚Biko‘, ‚Sun City‘, ‚Gimme Hope Jo’anna‘. In: Zeithistorische Forschungen. Studies in Contemporary History. Vol. 13, No. 2, 2016, pp. 337sq.

 

62 Masekela, Barbara: The ANC and the Cultural Boycott. In: Africa Report. Vol. 32, Nr. 4, 1987, pp. 19–21.

 

63 Maren, Michael: The Sins of Paul Simon. In: Africa Report. Vol. 32, Nr. 4, 1987, pp. 22–25.

 

64 Ibid.

Siegfried, Detlef: Aporien des Kulturboykotts, pp. 254-279.

 

65 Ibid.

 

66 Maren, Michael: The Sins of Paul Simon, pp. 22-25.

 

67 Watkins, Lee: A Genre Coming of Age. Transformation, Difference, and Authenticity in the Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture of South Africa. In: Eric Charry (ed.): Hip Hop Africa. New African Music in a Globalizing World. Indiana 2012, p. 57.

 

68 Monsoon, John: Stars, Bars & Guitars. A Journey in South African Music. Cape Town 2008, p. 59.

 

69 Williams, Weaam: Hip Hop Revolution. New York 2007 [DVD], 18:15min sq.

 

70 Watkins, Lee: A Genre Coming of Age, pp. 61sq.

 

71 This fits neatly into the primary narrative of Hip Hop’s Golden Age lasting from the late 70’s until the early 90’s. The increasing dominance of commercialization and violent lyrics within the context of the East–West conflict led to the opposition of fidelity to the core values of the Hip Hop culture as opposed to the selling out implied in commercialized Rap, serving only as a means for economic ascent and exploitation.  Culture vs. vulture, or Hip Hop vs. Rap are, of course, stark simplifications, excluding various factors such as the complexities of culture’s reception; it is a discourse, however, that is at the very heart of claims of authenticity. Its polar opposite serves as a marker and legitimization of so-called real Hip Hop. Notions such as true belonging to the culture and community, secret knowledge reserved to the initiated, and subliminal messages carrying a meaning only to the true observers evoke strongly moral, racial and esoteric implications. They are frequently taken up in the context of nostalgia – either for the Hip Hop movement’s lost but still latent power for social change and edutainment, but also for an African past evolving around ancient Kemet, with the aim of cultural regeneration.

 

72 Steingo, Gavin: Kwaito’s Promise. Music and the Aesthetics of Freedom in South Africa. Chicago/ London 2016, pp. 34-37.

 

73 Ibid., pp. 33-34.

 

74 Ibid., p. 43.

 

75 Ibid., p. xvii.

 

76 Ibid., pp. 49sq.

 

 

Bibliography:

 

Ariefdjen, Shaheen; Chapman, Rico: Hip Hop, Youth Activism, and the Dilemma of Colored Identity in South Africa. In: Clark, Msia Kibona; Mwanzia Koster, Mickie (eds.): Hip Hop and Social Change in Africa. Ni Wakati. Lanham 2014.

 

Bacia, Jürgen; Leidig, Dorothée: „Kauft keine Früchte aus Südafrika!“ Geschichte der Anti-Apartheid-Bewegung. Frankfurt am Main 2008.

 

Ballantine, Christopher: Marabi Nights. Jazz, ‘Race’ and Society in Early Apartheid South Africa. Scottsville 2:2012.

 

Baller, Susann: Urbanisierung und Migration in Afrika. In: Englert, Birgit et al.: Afrika im 20. Jahrhundert. Geschichte und Gesellschaft. Wien 2011, pp. 194-215.

 

Beaubien, Michael C.: The Cultural Boycott of South Africa. In: Africa Today. Vol. 29, No. 4, 1982, pp. 5–16.

 

Brede, Mara: „Apartheid tötet – boykottiert Südafrika!“ Plakate der westdeutschen Anti-Apartheid-Bewegung. In: Zeithistorische Forschung. Studies in Contemporary History. 2016, pp. 448-360.

 

Coplan, David B.: In Township Tonight! South Africa’s Black City Music and Theatre. Chicago/ London 2:2007.

 

Coplan, David B.: Sounds of the “Third Way“. Identity and the African Renaissance in Contemporary South African Popular Traditional Music. In: Black Music Research Journal. Vol. 21, No. 1., 2001.

 

Coplan, David B.; Jules-Rosette, Bennetta: ‘Nkosi sikelel‘ iAfrika‘. Stories of an African Anthem. In: Olwage, Grant (ed.): Composing Apartheid. Music for and against Apartheid. Johannesburg 2008, pp. 185–208.

 

D., Davey: 500 Female Emcees. Meet Yugen Blakrok. Reppin’ the Eastern Cape of South Africa. In: Hip Hop and Politics, 2014, <http://hiphopandpolitics.com/2014/03/18/500-female-emcees-meet-yugen-blakrok reppin-eastern-cape-south-africa/> [19. 01. 2017].

 

Erlmann, Veit: Nightsong. Performance, Power, and Practice in South Africa. Chicago/ London 1996.

 

Erlmann, Veit: Isicathamiya – Die Chormusik der Zulu-Wanderarbeiter in Südafrika, 1890-1950. In: Erlmann, Veit (ed.): Populäre Musik in Afrika. Folge 53. Berlin 1991.

 

Gilbert, Shirli: Singing against Apartheid. ANC Cultural Groups and the International Anti-Apartheid Struggle. In: Olwage, Grant (ed.): Composing Apartheid. Music for and against Apartheid. Johannesburg 2008.

 

Gilbert, Shirli: Popular Song, Gender Equality and the Anti-Apartheid Struggle. In: Muller, Stephanus; Walton, Chris: Gender and Sexuality in South African Music, Stellenbosch 2005, pp. 11–18.

 

Hamilton, Margaret: Songs of Liberation and Protest. In: Sing Freedom! Songs of South African Life. London 1993, pp. 10–12.

 

Kahrs, Andreas: Musik gegen Apartheid. ‚Biko‘, ‚Sun City‘, ‚Gimme Hope Jo’anna‘. In: Zeithistorische Forschungen. Studies in Contemporary History. Vol. 13, No. 2, 2016, pp. 337–347.

 

Male, Howard: The South African Sound of Mbaqanga. Joy out of Suffering: The Music of 1970s Soweto. In: The Arts Desk, 2010, <http://www.theartsdesk.com/new-music/south-african-sound-mbaqanga> [15.11.2017].

 

Maren, Michael: The Sins of Paul Simon. In: Africa Report. Vol. 32, Nr. 4, 1987, pp. 22–25.

 

Masekela, Barbara: The ANC and the Cultural Boycott. In: Africa Report. Vol. 32, Nr. 4, 1987, pp. 19–21.

 

Meintjes, Louise: Sound of Africa. Making Music Zulu in a South African Studio. Durham 2003.

 

Monsoon, Jon: Stars, Bars & Guitars. A Journey in South African Music.  Cape Town 2008.

 

Muller, Carol A.: Musical Remembrance, Exile and the Remaking of South African Jazz (1960–1979). In: Bithell, Caroline; Hill, Juniper (ed.): The Oxford Handbook of Musical Revival. New York 2014.

 

Muller, Carol A.: Focus. South African Music. New York/ London 2008.

 

Schechter, Danny: Artists United Against Apartheid. In: Africa Report. Vol. 32, No. 4, 1987, pp. 42–45.

 

Schumann, Anne: The Beat that Beat Apartheid: The Role of Music in the Resistance against Apartheid in South Africa. In: Stichproben. Wiener Zeitschrift für kritische Afrikastudien. Vol. 8, No. 14, 2008, pp. 17–39.

 

Siegfried, Detlef: Aporien des Kulturboykotts. Anti-Apartheid-Bewegung, ANC und der Konflikt um Paul Simons Album Graceland (1985-1988). In: Zeithistorische Forschungen. Studies in Contemporary History. Vol. 13, No. 2, 2016, pp. 254–279.

 

Steingo, Gavin: Kwaito’s Promise. Music and the Aesthetics of Freedom in South Africa. Chicago/ London 2016.

 

Turner, Patrick: Hip Hop Versus Rap. The Politics of Droppin’ Knowledge. Abingdon 2017.

 

von Moos, Tscherina; Leuthold, Theo: Together not apart. Dokumentation einer Südafrika-Boykott-Aktion in der Schweiz. Zürich 1987.

 

Watkins, Lee: A Genre Coming of Age. Transformation, Difference, and Authenticity in the Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture of South Africa. In: Charry, Eric (ed.): Hip Hop Africa. New African Music in a Globalizing World. Indiana 2012.

 

Williams, Weaam: Hip Hop Revolution. New York 2007. [DVD]

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